Averaging model analyses of teacher expectations of performance from students varying in motivation and ability
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Although there have been numerous studies of the impact of teacher expectations on student performance, the manner in which expectations are formed has remained unexplored. The present research tested the hypothesis that teachers develop expectation of student performance by averaging information about his or her motivation and ability. In two experiments on predictions of performance in non academic contest (n=60) and academic exams (n=60), manipulation of number of pieces of similar motivation information, availability of additional pieces of average motivation information, and unavailability of information about either motivation or ability all yielded results as prescribed by the averaging model. As this result differs from those previously obtained from students and managers, the second hypothesis of role differences in expectation of performance was also supported. Theoretical, methodological, and applied implications of the results were discussed. Suggestions for future research were also made.
- Working Papers